References

Module 1

Alghamdi A, Humar A, Natori Y, et al. Clinical predictors of progression and clearance of low level CMV viremia in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2016;16(suppl 3): Abstract C277.

Ariza-Heredia EJ, Nesher L, Chemaly RF. Cytomegalovirus diseases after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a mini-review. Cancer Lett. 2014;342:1-8.

Atabani SF, Smith C, Atkinson C, et al. Cytomegalovirus replication kinetics in solid organ transplant recipients managed by preemptive therapy. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:2457-64.

Boeckh M, Gooley TA, Myerson D, et al. Cytomegalovirus pp65 antigenemia-guided early treatment with ganciclovir versus ganciclovir at engraftment after allogeneic marrow transplantation: A randomized double-blind study. Blood. 1993;88:4063-71.

Boeckh M, Nichols WG, Chemaly RF, et al. Valganciclovir for the prevention of complications of late cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162:1-10.

Camargo JF, Komanduri KV. Emerging concepts in cytomegalovirus infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2017 [Epub ahead of print].

Cantoni N, Hirsch HH, Khanna N, Gerull S, Buser A, Bucher C, et al. Evidence for a bidirectional relationship between cytomegalovirus replication and acute graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010;16:1309-14.

Chan ST, Logan AC. The clinical impact of cytomegalovirus infection following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: Why the quest for meaningful prophylaxis still matters. Blood Rev. 2017;31:173-83.

Chimerix. Chimerix announces top-line results from phase 3 SUPPRESS trial of brincidofovir. Dec. 28. 2015. Available at: http://ir.chimerix.com/static-files/c3487b03-18ab-4a2a-b067-9e8cf67ff79d. Accessed September 28, 2017.

Chimerix. Chimerix announces presentation of detailed results from phase 3 SUPPRESS trial at BMT Tandem Meetings. Feb. 20, 2016. Available at: http://ir.chimerix.com/static-files/305b31c5-e488-4174-a0f5-ef32fb61537c. Accessed December 15, 2017.

Clinicaltrials.gov. Efficacy and safety of maribavir in transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections that are refractory or resistant to treatment. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02931539. Accessed Dec. 15, 2017.

Clinicaltrials.gov. Study for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02927067. Accessed Dec. 15, 2017.

Gabardi S, Asipenko N, Fleming J, et al. Evaluation of low- versus high-dose valganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2015;99:1499-505.

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Goodrich JM, Bowden RA, Fisher L, et al. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:173-178.

Green ML, Leisenring W, Stachel D, et al. Efficacy of a viral load-based risk-adapted, preemptive treatment strategy for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012;18:1687-99.

Green ML, Leisenring W, Xie H, et al. CMV viral load and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a cohort study in the era of preemptive therapy. Lancet Haematol. 2016;3:e119-e127.

Humar A, Lebranchu Y, Vincenti F, et al. The efficacy and safety of 200 days valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in high-risk kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:1228-37.

Humar A, Limaye AP, Blumberg EA, et al. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis in D+/R- kidney transplant recipient is associated with long-term reduction in cytomegalovirus disease: two-year results of the IMPACT study. Transplantation. 2010;90:1427-31.

Ko GB, Kim T, Kim SH, et al. Increased incidence of herpes zoster in the setting of cytomegalovirus preemptive therapy after kidney transplantation. Transplant Infect Dis. 2013;15:416-23.

Kotton CN, Kumar D, Caliendo AM, et al. Updated international consensus guidelines on the management of cytomegalovirus in solid-organ transplantation. Transplantation. 2013;96:333-60.

Kumar D, Mian M, Singer L, Humar A. An interventional study using cell-mediated immunity to personalize therapy for cytomegalovirus infection after transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2017;17:2468-73.

Ljungman P, Brand R, Hoek J, et al. Donor cytomegalovirus status influences the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplant: a study by the European Group for Blood Marrow Transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:473-81.

Luan FL. Six-month low-dose valganciclovir prophylaxis in cytomegalovirus D+/R- kidney transplant patients receiving thymoglobulin induction. Transplant Proc. 2013;45:175-7.

Manuel O, Kralidis G, Mueller NJ, et al. Impact of antiviral preventive strategies on the incidence and outcomes of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transpl. 2013;13:2402-10.

Martín Gandul C, Pérez‐Romero P, Blanco‐Lobo P, et al. Viral load, CMV-specific T-cell immune response and cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients at higher risk for cytomegalovirus infection during pre-emptive therapy. Transpl Int. 2014;27:1060-8.

Marty FM, Ljungman P, Chemaly RF, et al. Letermovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus in hematopoietic-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:2433-44.

Marty FM, Ljungman P, Papanicolaou GA, et al. Maribavir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of allogeneic stem-cell transplants: a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:284–92.

McNally A, McGregor D, Searle M, Irvine J, Chross N. Henoch-Schönlein purpura in a renal transplant recipient with prior IgA nephropathy following influenza vaccination. Clin Kidney J. 2013;6:313-5.

Mori T, Aisa Y, Shimizu T, Nakazato T, Yamazaki R, Ikeda Y, Okamoto S. Prevention of cytomegalovirus infection by valaciclovir after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor. Int J Hematol. 2006;83:266.

Natori Y, Humar A, Husain S, et al. Recurrence of CMV Infection and the effect of prolonged antivirals in organ transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2017;101:1449-54.

Pergam SA, Limaye AP. Varicella zoster virus in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:138-46.

PrevymisTM (letermovir) [package insert]. Merck & Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, NJ; 2017.

Razonable RR, Humar A; AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transpl. 2013;13:93-106.

Rinehart M, Hochard E, Rockey M, et al. Evaluation of cytomegalovirus reactivation and tolerability in seropositive umbilical cord transplant patients after implementation of an intensive prevention strategy. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2016;9:105-11.

San Juan R, Navarro D, Garcia-Reyne A, et al. Effect of long-term prophylaxis in the development of cytomegalovirus-specific T-cell immunity in D+/R- solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2015;17:637-46.

Stevens DR, Sawinski E, Blumberg N, et al. Increased risk of breakthrough infection among cytomegalovirus donor-positive/recipient-negative kidney transplant recipients receiving lower-dose valganciclovir prophylaxis. Transpl Infect Dis. 2015;17:163-73.

Sullivan T, Brodginski A, Patel G, Huprikar S. The role of secondary cytomegalovirus prophylaxis for kidney and liver transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2015; 99:855-9.

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van Burik JA, Carter SL, Freifeld AG, et al. Higher risk of cytomegalovirus and Aspergillus infections in recipients of T cell–depleted unrelated bone marrow: analysis of infectious complications in patients treated with T cell depletion versus immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13:1487-98.

Winston DJ, Ho WG, Bartoni K, et al. Ganciclovir prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: Results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:179-184.

Winston DJ, Yeaker AM, Chandrasekar PH, et al. Randomized comparison of oral valacyclovir and intravenous ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:749-58.

Module 2

Ariza-Heredia EJ, Nesher L, Chemaly RF. Cytomegalovirus diseases after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a mini-review. Cancer Letters. 2014;342:1-8.

Avery RK, Arav-Boger R, Marr KA, et al. Outcomes in transplant recipients treated with foscarnet for ganciclovir-resistant or refractory cytomegalovirus infection. Transplantation. 2016;100:e74-e80.

Bhorade S, Ahya VN, Baz MA. Comparison of sirolimus with azathioprine in a tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen in lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:379-87.

Bright PD, Gompels M, Donati M, Johnston S. Successful oral treatment of ganciclovir resistant cytomegalovirus with maribavir in the context of primary immunodeficiency: first case report and review. J Clin Virol. 2017;87:12-6

Chan ST, Logan AC. The clinical impact of cytomegalovirus infection following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: Why the quest for meaningful prophylaxis still matters. Blood Reviews. 2017;31:173-83.

Chimerix. Chimerix announces presentation of detailed results from phase 3 SUPPRESS trial at BMT Tandem Meetings. Feb. 20, 2016. Available at: http://ir.chimerix.com/static-files/305b31c5-e488-4174-a0f5-ef32fb61537c. Accessed December 15, 2017.

Cidofovir injection [package insert]. Mylan Institutional LLC, Rockford, IL; 2012.

Clinicaltrials.gov. Efficacy and safety of maribavir in transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections that are refractory or resistant to treatment. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02931539. Accessed Dec. 18, 2017.

Clinicaltrials.gov. Study for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02927067. Accessed Dec. 15, 2017.

Cordero E, Casasola C, Ecarma R, Danguilan R. Cytomegalovirus disease in kidney transplant recipients: incidence, clinical profile, and risk factors. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:694-700

Dunn W, Chou C, Li H, et al. Functional profiling of a human cytomegalovirus genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100:14223-8

Einsele H, Hebart H, Kauffmann-Schneider C, et al. Risk factors for treatment failures in patients receiving PCR-based preemptive therapy for CMV infection. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000;25:757-63.

El Chaer F, Shah DP, Chemaly RF. How I treat resistant cytomegalovirus infection in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. Blood. 2016;128:2624-36.

El-Haddad D, El Chaer F, Vanichanan J, et al. Brincidofovir (CMX-001) for refractory and resistant CMV and HSV infections in immunocompromised cancer patients: a single-center experience. Antiviral Res. 2016;134:58-62.

Erard V, Guthrie KA, Seo S, et al. Reduced mortality of cytomegalovirus pneumonia after hematopoietic cell transplantation due to antiviral therapy and changes in transplantation practices. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:31-9.

Florescu DF, Abu-Elmagd K, Mercer DF, et al. An international survey of cytomegalovirus prevention and treatment practices in intestinal transplantation. Transplantation. 2014;97:78-82.

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Ganciclovir injection [package insert]. Exela Pharma Sciences, Lenoir, NC; 2017.

Ghassemieh B, Ahya VN, Baz MA, et al. Decreased incidence of cytomegalovirus infection with sirolimus in a post hoc randomized, multicenter study in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32:701-6.

Green ML, Leisenring W, Xie H, et al. CMV viral load and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a cohort study in the era of preemptive therapy. Lancet Haematol. 2016;3:e119-e127.

Hayden RT, Sun Y, Tang L, et al. Progress in quantitative viral load testing: variability and impact of the WHO quantitative international standards. J Clin Microbiol. 2017;55:423-30.

Kaul DR, Stoelben S, Cober E, et al. First report of successful treatment of multidrug‐resistant cytomegalovirus disease with the novel anti‐CMV compound AIC246. Am J Transpl. 2011;11:1079-84.

Kotton CN, Kumar D, Caliendo AM, et al. Updated international consensus guidelines on the management of cytomegalovirus in solid-organ transplantation. Transplantation. 2013;96:333-60.

Liu J, Kong J, Chang YJ, et al. Patients with refractory cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at high risk for CMV disease and non-relapse mortality. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;21:1121.e9-e15.

Ljungman P, Perez-Bercoff L, Jonsson J, et al. Risk factors for the development of cytomegalovirus disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica. 2006;91:78-93

Lurain N, Chou S. Antiviral drug resistance of human cytomegalovirus. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23:4:689–712.

Manuel O, Kralidis G, Mueller NJ, et al. Impact of antiviral preventive strategies on the incidence and outcomes of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transpl. 2013;13:2402-10.

McIntosh M, Hauschild B, Miller V. Human cytomegalovirus and transplantation: drug development and regulatory issues. J Virus Erad. 2016;2:143-8.

Papanicolaou G, Silveira FP, Langston A, et al. Maribavir for treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections resistant or refractory to ganciclovir or foscarnet in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) or solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients: a randomized, dose-ranging, double-blind, phase 2 study [Abstract]. Open Forum Infect Dis 2016;3(Suppl 1):S1.

Pescovitz MD, Rabkin J, Merion RM, et al. Valganciclovir results in improved oral absorption of ganciclovir in liver transplant recipients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:2811-5

PrevymisTM (letermovir) [package insert]. Merck & Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, NJ; 2017.

Razonable RR, Humar AA. Cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transpl. 2013;13:93-106.

Reusser P, Einsele H, Lee J, et al. Randomized multicenter trial of foscarnet versus ganciclovir for preemptive therapy of cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2002;99:1159-64.

Stoelben S, Arns W, Renders L, et al. Preemptive treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplant recipients with letermovir: results of a Phase 2a study. Transplant Int. 2014;27:77-86.

Tan SK, Waggoner JJ, Pinsky BA. Cytomegalovirus load at treatment initiation is predictive of time to resolution of viremia and duration of therapy in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. J Clin Virol. 2015;69:179-83.

Travi G, Pergam SA. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in hematopoietic stem cell recipients. J Intens Care Med. 2014;29:200-12.

Valcyte (valganciclovir hydrochloride) [package insert]. Genentech USA, Inc., South San Francisco, CA; 2017.

Module 3

Abbo LM, Hooton TM. Antimicrobial stewardship and urinary tract infections. Antibiotics. 2014;3:174-92.

Aliyu S, Smaldone A, Larson E. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria among nursing home residents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Infect Control. 2017;45:512-8.

Arcilla MS, van Hattem JM, Haverkate MR, et al. Import and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae by international travellers (COMBAT study): a prospective, multicentre cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:78-85.

Avycaz (ceftazidime and avibactam) prescribing information. Allergan USA, Inc., Irvine, CA. January 2017.

Bidell MR, Opraseuth MP, Yoon M, et al. Effect of prior receipt of antibiotics on the pathogen distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of key Gram-negative pathogens among patients with hospital-onset urinary tract infections. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:176.

Bouchillon SK, Badal RE, Hoban DJ, Hawser SP. Antimicrobial susceptibility of inpatient urinary tract isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in the United States: results from the study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (SMART) program: 2009 – 2011. Clin Ther. 2013;35:872-7

Braun E, Hussein K, Geffen Y, Rabino G, Bar-Lavie Y, Paul M. Predominance of Gram-negative bacilli among patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(10):O627-O629.

Braykov NP, Eber MR, Klein EY, et al. Trends in resistance to carbapenems and third-generation cephalosporins among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the United States, 1999-2010. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34:259-68.

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Grupper M, Sutherland C, Nicolau DP. Multicenter evaluation of ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam inhibitory activity against meropenem-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa from blood, respiratory tract, and wounds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61:e0875-17.

Hahn AW, Jain R, Spach DH. New approaches to antibiotic use and review of recently approved antimicrobial agents. Med Clin North Am. 2016;100:911-26.

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Kaye KS, Pogue JM, Tran TB, Nation RL, Li J. Agents of last resort: polymyxin resistance. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2016;30:391-414.

Khasawneh FA, Karim A, Mahmood T, et al. Antibiotic de-escalation in bacteremic urinary tract infections: potential opportunities and effect on outcome. Infection. 2014;42:829-34.

Kosmidis C, Poulakou G, Markogiannakis A, Daikos GL. Treatment options for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. European Infectious Disease. 2012;6:28-34

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Morrill HJ, Pogue JM, Kaye KS, LaPlante KL. Treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015;2:ofv050

Nathwani D, Ran G, Sulham K, Gavaghan M, Menon V. Clinical and economic consequences of hospital-acquired resistant and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2014;3:32.

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Patriarca F, Cigana C, Massimo D, et al. Predictors and outcomes of infections by drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017;23:333-9.

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Peleg AY, Hooper DC. Hospital-acquired infections due to Gram-negative bacteria. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1804-13.

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Pogue JM, Kaye KS, Cohen DA, Marchaim D. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy in the era of multidrug-resistant human pathogens. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;21:302-12.

Poirel L, Jayol A, Nordmann P. Polymyxins: antibacterial activity, susceptibility testing, and resistance mechanisms encoded by plasmids or chromosomes. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017;30:557-596.

Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock: 2016. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:486-552.

Sader HS, Castaneheira M, Shortridge D, et al. Antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime-avibactam tested against multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from U.S. medical centers, 2013 to 2016. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61:e01045-17.

Satlin MJ, Cohen N, Ma KC, et al. Bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. J Infect. 2016;73:336-45.

Satlin MJ, Walsh TJ. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus: three major threats to hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2017;19:e12762.

Schuster MG, Cleveland AA, Dubberke ER, et al. Infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: results from the Organ Transplant Infection Project, a multicenter prospective cohort study. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4:ofx050.

Schwaber MJ, Carmeli Y. Mortality and delay in effective therapy associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:913-20

Sunenshine RH, Wright MO, Maraqakis LL, Harris AD, Song X, Hebden J, et al. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infection mortality rate and length of hospitalization. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:97-103.

Thaden JT, Fowler VG, Sexton DJ, Anderson DJ. Increasing incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in community hospitals throughout the southeastern United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016;37:49-54.

Thaden JT, Lewis SS, Hazen KC, et al. Rising rates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in community hospitals: a mixed-methods review of epidemiology and microbiology practices in a network of community hospitals in the southeastern United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35:978-83.

Udy AA, Baptista JP, Lim NL, et al. Augmented renal clearance in the ICU: results of a multicenter observational study of renal function in critically ill patients with normal plasma creatinine concentrations. Crit Care Med. 2014;42:520-7.

Udy AA, Varghese JM, Altukroni M, et al. Subtherapeutic initial β-lactam concentrations in select critically ill patients. Association between augmented renal clearance and low trough drug concentrations. Chest. 2012;142:30-9.

VabomereTM (meropenem and vaborbactam) prescribing information. The Medicines Company, Parsippany, NJ. 2017.

World Health Organization. Antibacterial agents in clinical development: an analysis of the antibacterial clinical development pipeline, including tuberculosis. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2017. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/258965/1/WHO-EMP-IAU-2017.11-eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed December 1, 2017.

Zerbaxa (ceftolozane and tazobactam) prescribing information. Merck & Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, NJ. October 2016.

Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Among Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Pneumonia and Bloodstream Infections in the United States From 2000 to 2009. J Hosp Med. 2013;8:559-63.

Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Secular trends in gram-negative resistance among urinary tract infection hospitalization in the United States, 2000-2009. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34:940-6.

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